This introduces an interesting but obscure chapter in history, straddling Spain and France and consequently tending to be left by treatments of Spain to French history, and by treatments of France to Spanish history. Not all of it was ultimately retained by Spain, but readily accessible sources don’t seem to show either the difference between the old and new boundaries or what happened to the rulers of Navarre after the annexation — the table at right picks up at that point. This seems like a grave oversight for the history of France. The history of Navarre is obscure enough that I found the full genealogy only with recourse to a succession of more serious and complete sources. Family trees for the Bourbons, such as given here , almost never go back further than the father, Henry, of Henry IV’s mother Jeanne. Brian Tompsett’s Royal and Noble genealogy originally enabled me to fill in the gaps, but there are some obscurities and questions in the information of both Tompsett and Hay that I had to compare with other sources.
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The site handles over 1. A spokesman for Twitter said: Catalan, Ukrainian, Greek, Czech and Basque have since been fully launched. Users can use the languages by simply changing their personal account settings. As well as Welsh, other languages soon to be translated include: In a message on its website yesterday Twitter said:
Origins Welsh evolved from British , the Celtic language spoken by the ancient Britons. It is not clear when Welsh became distinct. Jackson suggested that the evolution in syllabic structure and sound pattern was complete by around , and labeled the period between then and about “Primitive Welsh”. Jackson, however, believed that the two varieties were already distinct by that time. However, much of this poetry was supposedly composed in the Hen Ogledd, raising further questions about the dating of the material and language in which it was originally composed.
Old Welsh The next main period, somewhat better attested, is Old Welsh Hen Gymraeg, 9th to 11th centuries ; poetry from both Wales and Scotland has been preserved in this form of the language. As Germanic and Gaelic colonisation of Great Britain proceeded, the Brythonic speakers in Wales were split off from those in northern England, speaking Cumbric , and those in the south-west, speaking what would become Cornish , and so the languages diverged. The Book of Aneirin Canu Aneirin, c. Middle Welsh Main article:
Newcastle Emlyn With the Normans came subjugation in the form of the motte and bailey castle earth and timber fortresses , easy and quick to construct. Hundreds of these castles were built throughout Wales and may be spotted almost everywhere minus their timber defenses. The Welsh adopted this building technique from their overlords and, like the Normans, soon recognized the advantages of buttressing their castles with stone. Welsh-built castles tend to be somewhat less overbearing and less lavishly designed, but this fact is due merely to the relative lack of fiscal resources available to the Welsh princes, as well as the unavailability of architects and other craftsmen, who were conscripted by the Normans.
Furthermore, as one source states: In Wales, the bonds between a lord and his followers were essentially those of kinship; in England, authority was very largely maintained by fear and force of arms.
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The Lays of my Land Newtown, Ballads and poems Two electronic databases on the Library web-page provide access to the libretti of Welsh-language songs — in both strict and free metres — in our collections: Welsh Ballads Online , which includes some 4, digitised ballads, mainly dating from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, from the collections of the National Library of Wales and Cardiff University Library The Index to Welsh Poetry in Manuscript formerly MALDWYN , which includes references to thousands of Welsh-language poems, in both strict and free metres, which are written in pre manuscripts here at the National Library, and elsewhere.
Other resources Researchers are directed to the following selected digital resources: Future plans Sponsored by our Board of Governors, the National Library will prioritise the cataloguing of a number of important recently-received musical collections during , including the Papers of Meredydd Evans and Phyllis Kinney. Part of this project will be a design for a new electronic database of Welsh melodies and songs which are held at the Library, and in other institutions.
Further information about this project will be published in due course.
History of the Welsh language
If a language is dead, let it die. What is very relevant to this blog is the fact I am Scottish not English. I once spent some time in the Outer Hebrides where I admired and was fascinated by how, in shops, people would speak to each other in sentences that meandered almost randomly between English and Gaelic words and phrases. They used whichever words and phrases came more naturally and fitted better.
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Body language – basics and introduction Body language is a powerful concept which successful people tend to understand well. The study and theory of body language has become popular in recent years because psychologists have been able to understand what we ‘say’ through our bodily gestures and facial expressions, so as to translate our body language, revealing its underlying feelings and attitudes. Body Language is also referred to as ‘non-verbal communications’, and less commonly ‘non-vocal communications’.
The term ‘non-verbal communications’ tends to be used in a wider sense, and all these terms are somewhat vague. For the purposes of this article, the terms ‘body language’ and ‘non-verbal communications’ are broadly interchangeable. If you carry out any serious analysis or discussion you should clarify the terminology in your own way to suit your purposes.
Does body language include facial expression and eye movement? What about breathing and perspiration?
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During the Early Middle Ages the British language began to fragment due to increased dialect differentiation, evolving into Welsh and the other Brythonic languages Breton , Cornish , and the extinct Cumbric. It is not clear when Welsh became distinct. Jackson suggested that the evolution in syllabic structure and sound pattern was complete by around , and labeled the period between then and about “Primitive Welsh”.
This Primitive Welsh may have been spoken in both Wales and the Hen Ogledd “Old North” , the Brythonic-speaking areas of what is now northern England and southern Scotland , and therefore been the ancestor of Cumbric as well as Welsh. Jackson, however, believed that the two varieties were already distinct by that time.
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Small Group Tours of Wales Since Welsh Dragon Tours has welcomed over 2, visitors to Wales to enjoy the Culture and Beauty of one of the most beautiful regions of the British Isles. We offer a choice of itineraries, from four days three nights accommodation to seven days six nights accommodation. Our ‘Tours’ page on this site has comprehensive outline itineraries to assist you in making your choice.
Visit Wales with Welsh Dragon Tours. We welcome you to experience the history of the Welsh people’s long journey through time, visiting sites dating from pre-history, the four centuries of Roman occupation, the Industrial Revolution, right up to the present day. We pride ourselves on providing comprehensive information on these web pages, to answer your questions and help you select the right tour.
Please read all sections carefully before contacting us. If there is anything else that you would like to know, we will be happy to assist. We are not a travel agent, and do not arrange international flights, transport within the UK to and from our tour transfer points, or travel insurance. Although we carry full liability and operational cover, we strongly advise all visitors to arrange adequate, personal insurance prior to travelling.
What is an Eisteddfod!??
We spoke to five people from around Wales about what Welsh means to them. As we speak, in English, she keeps drifting into Welsh again to emphasise certain points, and I have to keep reminding her to speak English, for the purposes of the interview. Bethan runs Amser Babi Cymraeg Activities for Babies and Children , which offers activities for new parents, babies and young children and encourages them to grow and learn in a Welsh language environment.
After being made redundant, Bethan set up the business in July , driven by her passion to pass on the Welsh language to young people and keep it alive. My mum always taught me: Her mother was a teacher and her father was a goalkeeper.
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Why Welsh language protesters mobbed new Iceland store – and how firm gave them the cold shoulder
Share this article Share Some of the coins were struck during the reign of Emperor Nero, who reigned between 54 and 68 AD. It is not known how, or when, they were brought to the region, but it’s possible they may have been carried by a Roman soldier or exchanged by a trader as the currency became accepted in Britain. A year later he returned with 30, soldiers. A granite bust is shown It is not known how, or when, the coins were brought to the region, but it’s possible they may have been carried by a Roman soldier or exchanged by a trader as the currency became accepted in Britain.
The First Minister said: I am proud to announce my new Ministerial team, which provides a balance of experience and stability, with new drive and energy. This strong team will drive forward our ambitious plans for Wales — focusing on growing the Welsh economy, creating jobs, supporting our public services and improving the day-to-day lives of the people of Wales.
Always willing to engage and a friend to business. JaneHutt service to both the Government and Wales will always be remembered by the WelshLabour movement for years to come. JaneHutt was a cabinet minister who made success look deceptively easy. For me, Jane and Spad Jeff Andrews were a dream team to work with — Leighton Jenkins jenkinsleighto November 3, To serve in government for 18 years is an outstanding achievement, as is doing so in a principled manner.
Wishing JaneHutt all the best. What’s next for Dafydd Elis-Thomas? ECH This is one of the lively rumours of the day. Will a space be found if not at the cabinet table at least in the ranks of ministers for one of the most prominent Welsh political personalities of the devolution age? Rob Browne I am leaving the Cabinet after 18 and a half years of ministerial office in health, social services, equalities, education, finance and finally as Leader of the House and Chief Whip.
I have been very fortunate to be able to play my part in the founding years of the Assembly, helping to secure stability and confidence in a Welsh Labour Government throughout this time.
Schools Mind your minority language: Welsh, Gaelic, Irish and Cornish are staging a comeback Thanks to impassioned campaigners, Welsh is in fine fettle, and other minority languages are also on the up, as Holly Williams discovers. Saturday 19 January There was the translation of my village’s road sign, so it was both in ‘English’ and Welsh:
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Wales before the Norman Conquest The prehistory of Wales Meaningful study of prehistoric Wales has to be pursued against the broader background of British prehistory, for the material remains of the period — bce especially funerary monuments, provide regional manifestations of features characteristic of Britain as a whole. The Celtic origins of Britain, probably to be sought in a gradual process within the last millennium bce, are a matter of continuing scholarly debate.
Traditional archaeological and linguistic interpretation emphasizes an influx, from the late Bronze Age onward, of Celtic-speaking peoples, though not perhaps in vast numbers, and a dynamic relationship between continental and insular communities. Modern views emphasize that the ethnogenesis of the Celts must be seen as a complex process of social change and not entirely the result of migrations. As regards their social structure, the metalwork associated with feasting and military prowess, such as that found at Llyn Fawr and Llyn Cerrig Bach, coupled with the broad distribution of fortified sites, typifies the highly stratified but politically fragmented and warlike society which prevailed in Wales down to the Roman period.
Roman Wales 1st—4th centuries Wales in the Roman period shared broadly the experience of other parts of highland Britain, but modern archaeological study has tended to moderate the traditional contrast drawn between military and civil zones. Mediterranean culture is best exemplified in southern Wales , where there were important Roman towns at Caerwent and Carmarthen and villas at a number of other sites.
Remains elsewhere consist mainly of the roads and forts of a phase of military occupation that lasted to about ce But at Caernarfon Segontium there was a continuous well-ordered settlement to about ce, and it is likely that civil influences were exerted much more widely than was once thought. Linguistic study suggests that the native language, known to scholars as Brittonic or Brythonic, was infused with Latin terms, though distinction needs to be made between borrowings of the period of Roman rule and the scholarly borrowings of subsequent periods.
His pained shrieks cause women to miscarry, animals to perish and plants to become barren. Lludd , king of Britain, goes to his wise brother Llefelys in France. Llefelys tells him to dig a pit in the centre of Britain, fill it with mead, and cover it with cloth.
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Bilingual road markings near Cardiff Airport. In Welsh-speaking areas, the Welsh signage appears first. Although Welsh is a minority language, support for it grew during the second half of the 20th century, along with the rise of organisations such as the nationalist political party Plaid Cymru from and Welsh Language Society from The Welsh Language Act and the Government of Wales Act provide that the Welsh and English languages be treated equally in the public sector, as far as is reasonable and practicable.
Each public body is required to prepare for approval a Welsh Language Scheme , which indicates its commitment to the equality of treatment principle. This is sent out in draft form for public consultation for a three-month period, whereupon comments on it may be incorporated into a final version. Thereafter, the public body is charged with implementing and fulfilling its obligations under the Welsh Language Scheme.
The list of other public bodies which have to prepare Schemes could be added to by initially the Secretary of State for Wales, from — , by way of statutory instrument. Subsequent to the forming of the National Assembly for Wales in , the Government Minister responsible for the Welsh language can and has passed statutory instruments naming public bodies who have to prepare Schemes. Neither the Act nor secondary legislation made under it covers the private sector, although some organisations, notably banks and some railway companies, provide some of their information in Welsh.